One of the important components in keeping a car going in the proper direction is the differential system. It effectively maintains alignment between your front and wheel tires, ensuring that each pair receives the proper amount of power to go in the direction the driver desires. It might be terrible news for your car if your differential fails.
A loud noise coming from the rear of the vehicle, vibrations, difficulties cornering, and fluid leaks are all signs of a bad differential. You should take your car to a professional to get the issue fixed if you see these symptoms.
Meanwhile, in this article, we will examine the warning signs of bad differential symptoms as well as the causes of this problem.
What is the function of a differential?
The left and right wheels of your car will follow slightly different paths when you make a turn. The turn will be completed with fewer tire rotations because the tires on the inside of the turn will form a circle with a smaller radius.
The left and right tires would be compelled to spin at the same pace despite these distinct routes if cars did not have front and rear differentials. Due to the lack of traction, high tire wear, and increased stress on other powertrain parts, this would cause one or both tires to slide.
The width of the vehicle’s track is one factor contributing to the disparity in speed between the two tires (that is, the distance between the left and right wheels). The speed differential between the inner and outer wheels increases with track width and turns that are taken at a closer radius.
There are three main types of differentials: open, limited-slip, and locking—Carfax.
What causes a differential to go bad?
We will begin this by identifying the source of the issue. What malfunctions in a differential?
Well, driving a new car incorrectly is one of the biggest causes of differential failure. Your car has to be “broken in” for a certain amount of time, and overworking your engine too soon may result in front or rear differential sounds that indicate a more serious problem.
By driving excessively quickly (above 50 mph) for extended periods or by towing or dragging another object—such as an RV or a boat—we imply placing too much stress on the new car. Your differential may overheat as a result and begin to malfunction.
Allowing your car to spin out a lot is the simplest method to damage your differential. Spinning out accidentally once in a while shouldn’t be too harmful. However, it may be harmful when your rear wheels roll out while your front wheels stay on the ground. These types of driving actions have the potential to break or harm various components of your differential.
How many differentials does my car have?
Depending on how many driven wheels a vehicle has, various differentials are located in different places. Wheels that receive torque from the engine are referred to as “driven” wheels.
Vehicles with front- and rear-wheel drives have two wheels. They only vary in one way.
Front Wheel Drive
Transaxles, which combine the functions of the gearbox, differential, and axle, are often seen in front-wheel drive cars. Depending on who you ask, the word “transaxle” can be used interchangeably with “transmission” or “differential” when referring to front-wheel-drive cars.
Rear Wheel Drive
The driveshaft connecting the independent differential between the rear wheels and the gearbox is present in the majority of rear-wheel-drive cars.
All Wheel Drive
A front, rear, and centre differential are present in all-wheel-drive cars. The front and rear differential inputs each divide the leftover torque from left to right after the central differential has divided it.
Four Wheel Drive
Instead of a central differential, four-wheel drive systems generally seen on trucks and SUVs use a transfer case.
Types of differential systems
Locking differentials are often seen on trucks and Jeeps with off-road kits, which are designed for off-road travel.
Regardless of wheel slip, a locking differential spins the left and right wheels at the same speed. When one tire may be in the mud, snow, or even the air on rough terrain, this differential is fantastic.
In a condition requiring a lot of traction, as on dry asphalt, you should be careful not to lock the differential. The powertrain might sustain undue strain as a result, breaking costly components.
The simplest and most typical differential is an open differential. Each output receives the same amount of torque. This implies that if one tire loses traction, the other tire’s ability to exert force on the ground to move the car forward will be constrained.
Between an open differential and a locking differential, a restricted slip differential is in the centre. These are often seen on premium sports vehicles and more expensive sports cars.
Limited slip differentials come in a wide variety of forms and applications. The fundamental tenet is that when a tire slides, its maximum wheel speed is limited.
The opposing tire that still has traction then receives torque transfer or multiplier action. This should enable a vehicle to continue going even if one tire has little or no traction.
Bad differential symptoms – both front and rear
A few symptoms will emerge if your front and/or rear differentials begin to deteriorate or go bad. These are the most typical bad differential symptoms that you might anticipate.
1. Damaged tires
The inner tires will wear down more quickly because they are being pushed to spin more quickly than they should be if your left and right tires are moving at the same pace when you round a corner. Your tires will prematurely wear as a result of this.
The tire scrubbing or the sound of your tires sliding and grabbing in fast succession, is another sign that your differential is locked. This may sound like a quick scream or chirp depending on the rubber composition. There will probably be some tremors to the sound’s rhythm.
2. Whining Noises
Whining sounds are among the most prevalent and obvious signs of a poor differential. This can be because the differentials’ parts aren’t adequately greased.
Perhaps there is fluid leakage in the differentials, which is hastening their early wear. You may hear whining sounds coming from the end of your car where the differential is located if its parts are not being properly greased.
3. Gear grinding
The gears of a worn differential could start to grind more frequently. Even buzzing sounds from the gears grinding may result from this. As you increase your vehicle’s speed, you’ll notice that the buzzing sound becomes louder.
It’s a good idea to get your differential and potentially the transmission examined if you hear this. If you notice it early, the solution can be as easy as changing the gear oil.
4. Complicated handling
Differentials are what enable your car to turn smoothly and pleasantly. Your car’s ability to turn will likely be compromised by a failed differential, which will also make it seem unstable.
Get your car repaired as soon as you can to get it looked at if you ever notice any steering or corner-turning issues.
The drive shaft will begin to tremble if the universal joints in your differentials are too worn out. As you press the gas pedal to speed your car, the vibrations will get even more intense. If the differential fluid is leaking, the vibrations will worsen.
Even though it may not appear critical, you should take this as a caution that your differentials need to be examined.
Bad differential replacement cost
Depending on how badly damaged they are, front and rear differential repairs may run into thousands of dollars. Repairing the majority of rear or front differentials shouldn’t typically cost more than $400. However, most individuals spend between $200 and $300.
This would entail differential repair work including replacing the oil seal and correcting the backlash. But if a differential has to be rebuilt, your repair expenses will be in the $400–$800 range.
In comparison to having to replace a complete differential, which would cost between $1,000 and $2,000, this is still less expensive.
What is the lifespan of a rear differential?
Rear differentials are robust pieces of equipment. It’s not invincible, however. A rear differential may last between 100,000 and 150,000 miles with the right upkeep. However, if it is not often utilised in off-road driving or is not properly maintained, the lifetime may be considerably reduced. The operating temperature affects a differential’s longevity as well. The differential will wear out more rapidly if it constantly overheats.
How long does it take to replace a differential?
A rear differential replacement is a somewhat complex repair. Depending on the type and model of your car, it can take four to eight hours to finish. The repair may take longer if you have a high-end car with a convoluted gearbox architecture. Taking care of your rear differential and keeping an eye out for wear and tear are the greatest ways to prevent having to replace it.
What happens if a differential fails?
Several issues can arise if the rear or front differential fails. The difficulty in pushing the car ahead is the most frequent issue. This is due to the rear differential’s role in power transmission to the wheels.
It is necessary for giving the wheels the power they need to drive the car. In addition, when it fails, the rear differential could also create noise. When the car is moving, you may often hear whining or grinding noise.
How to fix a rear differential leak?
Rear differential seal leaks are a very frequent problem that is also rather simple to repair. The most crucial step is to find the leak as soon as possible since, if ignored, a tiny leak may grow significantly.
To repair a leaking rear differential seal, follow these instructions:
- Scrub the area around the leak. This will make it simpler for you to identify the leak’s cause.
- Identify the leak’s source. Following the path of fluid that has spilled is often the quickest way to locate this.
- Use brake cleaner or another comparable product to give the leak’s source a thorough cleaning once you’ve located it.
- Examine the leaking gasket or seal. You’ll need to buy a replacement if it is damaged.
- To seal the perimeter of the gasket or seal, use a bead of RTV sealant.
- After positioning the new gasket or seal, tighten it to the manufacturer’s guidelines.
- Once the gasket or seal is fixed, generously oil the area surrounding it. By doing so, you can maintain the region lubricated and stop more leaks.
- After completing the repairs, replace any components that were taken out during the operation, and then test-drive the car to make sure the leak has been rectified.
What does your differential sound like when it’s going bad?
Your differential may be going bad if you hear a few distinct noises. A whining sound that becomes louder as you speed is one of the most typical.
This is the differential that is often caused by low fluid levels. A grinding sound is another typical sound. The differential’s worn-out gears or bearings may be to blame for this.
It’s critical to have your car checked out by a skilled technician as soon as you hear any of these sounds.
Can you still drive if your differential is bad?
The car won’t be able to move if the differential is destroyed. However, you may be able to go a short distance if the differential is only partly destroyed.
However, it’s crucial to keep in mind that operating a vehicle with a broken differential might result in further harm to the gearbox and other parts. It is thus recommended to have the car towed as quickly as possible to a local repair facility.
If your car displays any of the signs mentioned in this article, be careful to have the differential inspected as soon as possible. Ignoring these symptoms might need expensive repairs later on.
On one hand, differential issues may be challenging to identify since they often imitate other typical auto issues. On the other hand, differential issues may be costly to repair and, if left unattended, can seriously damage your car.
It’s critical to identify these issues as soon as possible so that they may be remedied before doing significant harm.